This factor is a re-arrangement of *AISC Steel Design Manual* equation (9-2) which is presented as a thickness limitation. In order to include this limitation in the capacity calculation, this equation is rewritten as a factor which is then applied to the weld strength calculation.

Per page 9-5 of the *Steel Design Manual,* this factor shall apply whenever the “available strength of the connecting element is not directly calculable”. This is a subjective statement and we as engineers have done our best to include this factor wherever we thought necessary, such as a weld connected to the wall of an HSS column, or the web of a supporting column.

If you prefer not to include this factor, you can easily turn it off by unselecting the “**Check Weld Base Mat. Thick**” checkbox from the **Solution **tab of **(Global) Model Settings**.

However, it is very possible that this connection is also seeing forces from other connected elements, such as out of plane horizontal braces. You may now take these into account by entering them as the new **Transfer Forces** input.

These inputs will be included in the final calculation of the axial and shear design forces at the beam to column sub-connection. The equations shown below are based on statics as well and combine all components of the loads at the beam to column intersection.

The final load calculations are shown in detail in the **Required Load Calculation** report on the **Beam/Column** results report tab.

When you select the **Custom Angle** option, you now have the option to define the **Left** **Taper Cut Line** and **Right** **Taper Cut Line** as **Parallel to the Brace** or with a **Custom Angle**

These angles, in partner with the **Left** and **Right Extension** distances help you quickly define the tapered shape:

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- Column/Beam Direct Weld Moment Connection
- Column/Beam Flange Plates Moment Connection

When either of the above connections are designed per the Canadian design codes (CSA S16-09 or CSA S16-14), the HSS limit state checks are done per the appropriate equation in the *CIDECT Design Guide 3, Table 7.1*.

These limit states are all applicable only within a certain range, so RISAConnection checks the applicable ratios in the HSS Limitations check. If this fails, then the connection geometry is outside the “Range of Applicability” from the *CIDECT Design Guide 3 Table 7.1*.

- Column/Beam Direct Weld Moment Connection
- Column/Beam Flange Plates Moment Connection

You may select rectangular or square tubes and all design codes are supported (AISC 13th, 14th, CSA S16-09, and CSA S16-14) for the design of these connections.

Design for these connections is presented in detailed limit state checks just like all other RISAConnection results. Each limit state can be expanded to see the details of the check.

]]>RISAFoundation calculates the safety factors using the True Safety Factor Method, which involves looking at each category within a load combination and deciding whether it has a stabilizing to de-stabilizing effect. This means that each category will act as either a demand or resisting force, depending on the net sliding or overturning result for each local x and z direction. This is why it is important to assign your load categories appropriately to get a better sense of the true tendency of the structure to overturn.

In this example, the foundation support for a four leg tower has two load combinations applied for (DL + WLX) and (DL + WLZ). The breakdown in the **Overturn/Resist by Category** and **Sliding/Resist by Category tabs** show DL acts as a stabilizing force for both overturning and sliding while the wind loads in the X and Z directions act as destabilizing forces for overturning and sliding.

RISAFoundation takes the net result from each category within a load combination to see if it will go into the demand or resisting column in the Safety Factor result. The active and resisting sliding forces will be shown as an absolute value.

The slab Overturning and Sliding Safety Factor results are calculated by comparing the demand/resisting force in the slab’s local z and x directions. The SR-xx and SR-zz stability ratios are compared against the SF value in the Load Combinations spreadsheet. A value higher than 1.5 in this example means that the stabilizing forces are greater than the destabilizing forces and the mat is stable.

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In the Wall Design Rules spreadsheet, choose the FEA analysis method for the masonry lintel.

With the FEA analysis method, the forces that are experienced by the lintel are based on finite element analysis rather than a simply supported beam condition. The shear and moment diagrams can be seen in the Opening section of the Wall Detail Report.

Note: Reinforcement for the masonry lintel is only provided for the Simply Supported analysis method.

]]>The soil overburden pressure is multiplied by the area of the slab and is scaled to reduce the magnitude by the areas of and pedestals and stem walls.

In the example above, a soil overburden load of 0.5ksf is applied to a 15’x15’ slab with four rectangular 1.5’x1.5’ pedestals. The total load due to soil overburden is calculated as follows:

The soil overburden is included in the dead load applied and the effect of the overburden is reflected in the total Point Reaction result spreadsheet by an increase in total load.

Below is the total reaction *without* Soil Overburden due to slab self-weight only.

The total reaction *including* Soil Overburden and self-weight shows a difference of 108 kips we calculated from the total overburden load.

The effect of the soil overburden can also be quickly verified in the total slab soil pressure results.

]]>These include:

**CSA S16-14**– Hot Rolled Steel Design Code**CSA S136-****16**– Cold Formed Steel Design Code**CSA A23.3-14**– Concrete Design Code**CSA O86-14**– Wood Design Code**NBC 2015 Division B Part 4**– Seismic Load Generation**NBC 2015 Division B Part 4**– Wind Load Generation

To select these codes for your design, simply choose them from the **Codes** tab within the **Global Model Settings**.

You can also use the Load Combination Generator to generate load combinations per the 2015 NBC (Ultimate or Service). Simply select this from the LC Code.

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The seismic & wind load generator has also been updated to include this edition of the code in RISA-3D. To select the ASCE 7-16 code for your seismic design, select from the **Seismic** tab within the **Global Model Settings:**

Selecting the ASCE 7-16 code for the wind design can be done by accessing the Wind Load Generator under the Wind Load Parameters

You may also use the load combination generator to select the appropriate load combinations from ASCE 7-16:

Note: Many states do not yet require compliance with the 2018 IBC. The ICC (International Code Council) publishes a report for which editions are adopted by each state. Check the ICC website (https://cdn-web.iccsafe.org/) for more information.

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